Data & Information

Number of candidates over the years

Since it came into full operation on Oct 2001, the accumulated total number of CASEC candidates is 1,518,551. (as of the end of March 2015)

Number of CASEC candidates
(accumulated figure and year-by-year figure)

Number of candidates: 1,518,551 accumulated candidates (as of end of March 2015)

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About the relationship with TOEIC® and the reference score

About the TOEIC® reference score

  • When CASEC displays the result, it also displays the TOEIC® reference score.
    Please make use of this feature to have an accurate assessment of your proficiency.
  • The TOEIC® reference score is derived by computing the past TOEIC® scores (self-reported) taken from questionnaires voluntarily answered by past CASEC candidates when they sat for the test.

Method of data collection and subject of analysis

  • CASEC asked the candidates to complete a simple questionnaire before the test. The relationship with the CASEC total score is examined by computing the past TOEIC® scores (self-reported) taken from questionnaires voluntarily answered by past candidates of the CASEC test conducted between 1 Jan 2007 - 31 Dec 2009 when they sat for the test.
  • If the number of correct answers for sections 1 - 3, which consist of multiple-choice questions, was "0" for the CASEC test, and an unrealistic TOEIC® score was given for the questionnaire at the CASEC test, such data were excluded from our analysis.
  • Also, for candidates who took multiple CASEC tests, only the latest results were used.
  • In the end, the analysis was performed based on 19,167 sets of data.

Comparison table for CASEC score and TOEIC® reference score

The TOEIC® reference scores were derived by computing equivalent TOEIC scores for each CASEC score based on the aforementioned computed result. Also, respondents with a deviation of 100 or below for their reference score and self-reported score accounted for about 72% of the entire survey population.

Reference: Scatter graph for CASEC total score and self-reported TOEIC® score

The scatter graph on the right shows the relationship between the CASEC total score and the self-reported TOEIC® score for CASEC candidates who reported their TOEIC® scores at the time of the test.
The correlation coefficient for the CASEC total score and self-reported TOEIC ® score is 0.84.

Reference: Distribution of self-reported TOEIC® scores by CASEC total score group

Based on the CASEC total score, the candidates were divided into 10 groups: 0 - 100, 101 - 200,..., 901 - 1000.

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Relating CASEC Scores to CEFR Levels

About CEFR

CEFR: Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment (Council of Europe, 2001) describes foreign language proficiency at six levels ranging from A1 (beginner) to C2 (most advanced). Each level is defined by what a learner can do using a foreign language in real world. CEFR was developed by Council of Europe, and it is now acknowledged not only in Europe but also in many other parts of the world as one of the international standards of foreign language proficiency scale. Language teaching practitioners use CEFR as a reference for language curriculum design, material development, and comparison of different examinations such as TOEIC® and TOEFL®. CEFR is also helpful for hiring and training new employees.

Corresponding ranges for CASEC and TOEFL iBT® reference scores

Relating CASEC Scores to CEFR

[ Procedure ]

We followed the procedure recommended in the Relating Language Examinations to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment (CEFR) Manual (Council of Europe, 2009).

(1) Familiarization (The project members and panelists familiarize themselves with CEFR and the relating procedure)
(2) Specification (Content analysis of CASEC test items and its relevance to CEFR)
(3) Standardization Training & Benchmarking (Train panelists to develop a sense of CEFR levels)
(4) Standard Setting (Panelists relate a set of CASEC items to CEFR levels and decide borderlines between levels)
(5) Validation (Analysis and reflection of the overall process and results)

Note: We decided not to include Section 4 in the relating process at the moment due to the characteristics of its test format. While CEFR defines language proficiency in terms of things that a language learner can do using a foreign language in real-world situations, the task for CASEC Section 4 is partial dictation, in which the test taker is presented on the computer screen a few sentences with some words deleted, listens to the sentences, and types what he/she hears. Section 4 items do not necessarily simulate real-world situations.

[ Results ]

Section Details


■Section 1: Knowledge of Vocabulary
Section 1
Score
CEFR Level Description

195 ~ 250

B2
or higher

Has a vocabulary range sufficient for understanding both abstract and concrete texts on both familiar and unfamiliar topics normally encountered in personal, social, academic and vocational life.

145 ~ 194

B1

Has a vocabulary range sufficient for understanding both general message and specific details in a sustained interaction or conversation on most topics pertinent to her/his everyday life.

75 ~ 144

A2

Has a vocabulary range sufficient for understanding everyday social functions and daily-life transactions involving familiar situations and topics.

0 ~ 74

A1
or lower

Has a vocabulary range sufficient for understanding basic everyday phrases, personal details, immediate concrete needs, and very familiar topics.

■Section 2: Knowledge of Phrasal Expression and Usage
Section 2
Score
CEFR Level Description

225 ~ 250

B2
or higher

Has a vocabulary range sufficient for understanding both abstract and concrete texts on both familiar and unfamiliar topics normally encountered in personal, social, academic and vocational life.

165 ~ 224

B1

Has a vocabulary range sufficient for understanding both general message and specific details in a sustained interaction or conversation on most topics pertinent to her/his everyday life.

85 ~ 164

A2

Has a vocabulary range sufficient for understanding everyday social functions and daily-life transactions involving familiar situations and topics.

0 ~ 84

A1
or lower

Has a vocabulary range sufficient for understanding basic everyday phrases, personal details, immediate concrete needs, and very familiar topics.

■Section 3: Listening Ability – Understanding of Main Idea
Section 3
Score
CEFR Level Description

225 ~ 250

B2
or higher

Can understand standard spoken language, live or broadcast, on both familiar and unfamiliar topics normally encountered in personal, social, academic or vocational life.

200 ~ 224

B1

Can understand straightforward factual information about common everyday or job related topics, identifying both general messages and specific details.

145 ~ 199

A2

Can understand phrases and expressions related to areas of most immediate priority (e.g. very basic personal and family information, shopping, local geography, employment) provided speech is clearly and slowly articulated.

0 ~ 144

A1
or lower

Can follow speech that is very slow and carefully articulated, with long pauses for him/her to assimilate meaning.

References

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About the relationship with TOEFL iBT® and the reference score

About the TOEFL iBT® reference score

  • The TOEFL iBT® reference score is derived by computing the past TOEFL® scores (self-reported) taken from questionnaires voluntarily answered by past CASEC candidates when they sat for the test.
  • TOEFL iBT® scores are reported on a scale from 0-120 points. CASEC scores are reported on a scale from 0-1000 points.

Method of data collection and subject of analysis

  • CASEC asked the candidates to complete a simple questionnaire before the test. The relationship with the CASEC total score is examined by computing the past TOEFL® scores (self-reported) taken from questionnaires voluntarily answered by past candidates of the CASEC test conducted between 1 Jan 2010 - 31 Dec 2012 when they sat for the test.
  • If an unrealistic TOEFL® score was given for the questionnaire at the CASEC test, such data were excluded from our analysis.
  • Data that is thought to consist of TOEFL® PBT scores has been converted to TOEFL iBT® scores according to the TOEFL Total Score Comparison Table published by ETS.
  • For candidates who took multiple CASEC tests, only the latest results were used.
  • In the end, the analysis was performed based on 2,024 sets of data.

Comparison table for CASEC score and TOEFL IBT® reference score

The TOEFL iBT® reference scores were derived by computing equivalent range of TOEFL scores for each CASEC score based on the aforementioned computed result.
For CASEC scores of 450 points and under, however, the estimated TOEFL iBT® score range is defined uniformly as under 45 points. In the case of CASEC scores of 950 points or higher, the estimated TOEFL iBT® score is again defined uniformly as 100 points or over. This was done because few TOEFL® self-reported scores were available for candidates who obtained CASEC scores of 450 points or under and 950 points or over, so that the data was of low accuracy.

Corresponding ranges for CASEC and TOEFL iBT® reference scores

Reference: Scatter graph for CASEC total score and self-reported TOEFL® score

The scatter graph on the right shows the relationship between the CASEC total score and the self-reported TOEFL® score for CASEC candidates who reported their TOEFL® scores at the time of the test.
The correlation coefficient for the CASEC total score and self-reported TOEFL® score is 0.63.

Relationship between CASEC score and TOEFL® score

Reference: Distribution of self-reported TOEFL® scores by CASEC total score group

Based on the CASEC total score, the candidates were divided into 10 groups: 0 - 100, 101 - 200,..., 901 - 1000.
The distribution of TOEFL® self-reported scores by group is shown in the box plot diagram on the right.

Distribution of self-reported TOEFL® score by CASEC total score group

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Theses

Title: Cases of CAT Adaptation and Effect Measurement in English Proficiency Measurement
Author: Norio Hayashi (director of our company)
Journal title: Measurement and Control
Publication matter: Vol. 40(8) / pp. 572-575 / publication date: 20100810
Title: Practical use of computerized adaptive testing in Japan -Development and operation of “CASEC”
Authors: N. Hayashi, Y. Nogami, K. Maeda, and H. Ikeda
Name of Society: ICP-2004 at Beijing, China. August 13th, 2004

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IRT and CAT-related books

Title Author
Introduction to Item Response Theory -
New Analysis Method for Language Test and Data
Kenji Otomo (JIEM consultant)
Item Response Theory [Introduction] -
The Science of Testing and Measurement
Hideki Toyoda
Modern Test Theory Hiroshi Ikeda (director and adviser of our company)
Item Response Theory - Basics and Application Edited by Sukeyori Shiba
Applications of Item Response to Theory to Practical Testing Problems FREDERIC M. LORD
Item Response Theory: Principles and Application Ronald K. Hambleton, Hariharan Swaminathan
Fundamentals of Item Response Theory Ronald K. Hambleton, Hariharan Swaminathan
Item Response Theory for Psychologists SUSAN E. EMBRETSON, STEVEN P. REISE
Computerized Adaptive Testing: A Primer HOWARD WAINER

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Experience CASEC by taking a mock test

CASEC Guided Tour

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